Last year I read post-apoc novels set in the UK, including some really great ones like When the Tripods Came, Fugue for a Darkening Island, and of course, The Day of the Triffids. All of those books were written by Brit authors.
JG Ballard’s The Drowned World is okay but I liked his collectionMemories of the Space Age better, particularly his short story, “The Cage of Sand.”
I’m also a huge fan of Jeffrey Barlough’s Western Lights novels, which are Victorian gaslamp mystery adventures set in a post-apocalyptic alternate Ice Age. In 2013, I interviewed Barlough about the series.
This week I completed the eighth draft of my fourth and latest book. It’s not the final version by any means, but it’s the version I’m comfortable showing to people while I consider improvements. There’s never a final version to any book, even once it’s sent to the printer; I keep a running list of corrections if a revised edition of Samuel Smedley, Connecticut Privateer should ever be requested.
Often when I reach this milestone, I pull out my copy of Edward Gorey’s Amphigorey, a collection of his first 15 books, and reread the The Unstrung Harp. The story details the process of CF Earbrass, renowned English novelist, as he writes and publishes his latest work. The Unstrung Harp spans the period just before he begins writing and concludes with his escape from the reactions and reviews by suddenly going on holiday.
Never before or since The Unstrung Harp has a better rendering of the authorial journey been set to paper. Having read it first as a teen, it’s become a nostradamic document for me, a compilation of quatrains describing events and experiences that have come to pass.
In one panel Earbrass writes so long and hard that he skips lunch, whereupon he retreats to the kitchen to eat a jelly sandwich. That’s practically my daily routine.
Upon finishing a chapter, Earbrass sits and ponders “where the plot is to go and what will happen to it on arrival.” How else do you write a book?
Earbrass finds a presentation copy of an old novel in a second-hand bin but can’t remember who Angus is. A friend of mine once found a presentation copy of Smedley at a used-book sale and apologized to me, as if he was the one who gave it away.
Earbrass is cornered by an irate reader, who believes a character in the novel is modeled on him. Not only has this happened with my fiction, I also have a Smedley stalker who shows up at places to argue with me.
What’s amazing is that The Unstrung Harp was Gorey’s first book, originally published in 1953, and yet reading it, you’d think it was written by an established author reflecting on his career by way of self-mockery. Nope. Instead Gorey wrote a prophetic parody of the writing life, a blueprint of absurdity. For me, the humor only grows with each re-read.
Brexit is an act of secession, the breaking away of one polity from another, and say what you want about it, the fact that not a single shot has been fired over Brexit is a compliment to the patience and forbearance of both the United Kingdom and the European Union.
in the States, our two big acts of secession didn’t go so well. We exchanged
cannonballs with the British Empire to establish an idealized land of freedom
and liberty, and 244 years afterward we’re still striving to live up to those goals.
Later, some of us wanted to break away to preserve an ideal of nostalgia and,
more precisely, slavery, and by war’s end an estimated 800,000 men and women
lay dead. We Americans have seen both flips of the coin, the good act of
secession and the bad one too, a heads where people sought to establish a
radical new order and a tails where they fought to preserve a dying status quo.
driving force behind secession is a particular vision of the future, a dream
conforming to the ideals of the secessionists. In other words: secession is
utopian. At stake in Brexit are multiple conflicting models of what the UK
could be. Even now, for example, with a break from the EU truly on the horizon,
there appears to be little consensus about the precise relationship between an
independent UK and its former partners on the continent. Which vision will coalesce
into reality? Take it from a citizen of a country that’s been there before:
with so many cooks in the kitchen, the finished meal won’t be to anybody’s
the meantime, post-apocalyptic fiction can provide us with some insights
because, similar to secessionism, it’s a utopian art form. Unlike
secondary world fantasy or science fiction set on alien planets, post-apoc is
about our world with the slate wiped clean — it explores what social constructs
would develop on an Earth unshackled from history, a landscape where
civilization can begin again from the grassroots. It imagines what secession
often seeks to accomplish.
2019, I read a bunch of post-apocalyptic novels written by British authors and
set in Britain. Their interpretations of what their country would look like
stripped of its conventions varied but certain themes and motifs recurred.
Presented here are my glimmers into their futures, their observations, and
their judgments about what it means to be British.
of the more telling observations of history is that many of the great
migrations of our planet, if not most, have involved people trying to escape
their own government. There’s even a word for it: democide.
Set in a post-zombie UK, M.R. Carey’s The Girl With All the Gifts (2014) introduces us to Melanie, who, along with her classmates, is sequestered at an army-run research base located north of London, far from the last outpost of English civilization on the southern shore called Beacon. Unraveling why the children are crucial for the scientists’ research absorbs the early chapters, until eventually the base is compromised and a ragtag group of action-movie archetypes — including Melanie, the star student — must trudge back to Beacon, surrounded on all sides by the running dead.
as a short story, which, due to popular demand — and by popular, I mean Hollywood — Carey later expanded into both a
screenplay and a novel, written concurrently. It must be a nice problem to
have. Perhaps for just that reason the book is divided into halves: the first,
which includes the original story, is rich and well-written, while the second
descends into cinematic, easily storyboarded clichés (I’m looking at you,
you’ve ever watched a Romero movie or an episode of that HBO franchise, you’ve
probably already read this story of a familiar survivors’ march across the
countryside. Still, Carey’s expository unwinding of the collapse, particularly
of a government that turned against its citizens in its death throes,
entertains nonetheless. The darkness of a zombie apocalypse is always tempered
by its fantastical impossibility and so, at its foundation, remains a joke —
but a government bombing its own people to save itself? That’s all too
A better expression of peregrination as plot device is Adrian J. Walker’s The End of the World Running Club (2014). Edgar lives the life of a middle-class Englishman in the suburbs, working his days in an office, boozing his nights at the pub, not exercising, not eating well, and most of all, not being a terribly good father or husband. When an intense meteor shower devastates Earth’s northern hemisphere, Edgar and his family escape to their basement just in time.
After being rescued by soldiers from a nearby
barracks, Edgar returns one day from a scavenging mission to find his family
has been evacuated by an international agency to Cornwall, where ships intend
to transport survivors to new lives in the southern hemisphere. He and the
remaining left-behinds have until Christmas day to hoof from Edinburgh to
Falmouth if they ever want to be reunited with their loved ones.
The band’s journey through a crater-pocked countryside makes for a different landscape than most books centered around zombies or nukes. As with Girl, the ragtag bunch of runners (the roads are too badly marred for vehicles) is a motley of stereotypes — the soldier, the pensioner, the tattooed biker with a heart of gold — but Walker colors outside their lines to develop them into something better.
The same can’t be said for many of the villains they encounter;
the band is constantly attacked and captured by a series of highwaymen and
gangsters, all of whom originate from the lower classes. In fact, the only bit
of charity they receive is from a minor nobleman dwelling in a secluded manor.
Walker, who lives in London, is very specific about who’s responsible for
tearing the UK apart, whether by resorting to predatory violence in the
aftermath of an asteroid strike or by voting Leave. It’s the tragic flaw of the
English: they can’t help but be snobs, even when the protagonist’s arc aims to
mold him into the ideal of the modern progressive Labour-voter.
For a people who live on an island, the theme of running away from your problems is surprisingly common in British post-apoc. In Brian Aldiss’s Greybeard (1964), the titular character and his friends begin an odyssey down the Thames after their village descends into anarchy, incited by a rumor of an impending invasion by stoats (a kind of weasel, if you remember your Wind in the Willows).
seems trifling, but as the novel is set decades after the last child has been
born due to humanity’s sterilization by nuclear fallout, the townsfolk — none
of them under the age of 50 — are prone to hysterias and panics. Fearing the
mob mentality of their neighbors more than the stoats, Greybeard (born Algernon
Timberlane) and his companions cast off in a boat to find a new home along the
lack of young bodies able to perform the maintenance necessary to keep
civilization running has reduced Britain to a land of social atomization among
the ruins. Aldiss cuts their journey with interstitials about Timberlane’s life
before, during, and after the disaster, painting a cheerless picture of a society
fallen into nihilism in the face of self-caused extinction. Are so many of the
characters given to quarreling, grudges, jealousies, and even casual violence
because they’re demented by age, or because deep down that’s who they’ve always
are happy!” says one character. “For all that everyone has lost since the
terrible Accident of 1981, one thing at least we have gained — there is no
longer need for the hypocrisies and shams of civilization; we can be our
Released from the manacles of society and the bonds to other countries — or even to their own countrymen — the dwindling inhabitants of England are left unencumbered and free. “All of which pointed to a moral that they should have learned long before,” says one character to himself: “Never trust a bunch of lousy politicians to do your thinking for you.” Spoken like a true American.
of the Zombies
“One of the basic weaknesses of science fiction,” wrote John Christopher in his 2014 preface to When the Tripods Came (1988), is that “it is not very good at guessing the future.” Christopher was responding to criticism of his Tripod Trilogy that the alien invaders are technologically advanced in some senses and yet seem woefully backwards in others — a perception largely due to the original series, written in the late 60s, having been outpaced by real-world developments. Christopher penned the fourth book in part to explain the aliens’ technological deficiencies. “Scientific knowledge doesn’t have to follow the pattern we’re familiar with,” says one character, citing historical examples to reinforce the suspension of disbelief.
fiction frequently gets the details wrong but just as often predicts a larger
truth, especially because human behavior doesn’t change. In Christopher’s
prequel, we learn how the invading Masters, outmatched by Earth’s more
sophisticated weapons, conquered the planet anyway. After the first Tripods are
easily destroyed, their memory insidiously lingers in a children’s television
show, which eventually splits humanity into pro-Tripod “Trippies” and the rest
of mankind who, like the parents of Fortnite-addicted kids, assume the whole
thing is a fad that will blow over. Hoo boy, are they wrong.
true dread is in the benignity of the invasion. The Trippies aren’t always
violent, and the real menace lies in the subtle changes in their behavior. Our
protagonists make several attempts to escape the Trippies only to be
roadblocked by provincial prejudice or nationalism, something they’ve never
experienced before. The shared threat of invasion from another world, rather
than bonding people together Watchmen style, instead makes Trippies and
non-Trippies alike hostile to refugees. “It would make it easier to keep us
under control,” theorizes one character about the newfound xenophobia. “Divide
prescient suggestion — made way back in the days of Reagan and Thatcher — of
the divisive potential of pop culture and mass media adds a layer of
contemporary terror to an otherwise pulse-pounding narrative of a boy and his
family increasingly surrounded by pod people. As the book is a prequel to a
series published in the 1960s, it’s no spoiler to tell you the sinister
narrative slides from cozy horror into full-on jailbreak, and I stayed up late
finishing it, unable to turn the pages fast enough. If you’ve ever felt unease
at discovering that a loved one possesses some unsavory political views, When the Tripods Came may make you
relive the sensation.
Of all the books in this list, Christopher Priest’s Fugue for a Darkening Island (1972) is the most relevant to Brexit. It’s also the most bleak. The story follows Alan Whitman, an upper middle-class English everyman: he’s a college history professor who wears corduroys and lives in the London suburbs; his politics are liberal; he has one child and a loveless marriage; he’s carried on a comical number of affairs with students and colleagues. He is mashed potatoes of a man, someone who’s never made hard decisions or strongly believed in anything except an erection.
drought and famine culminate in a limited nuclear exchange in Africa, millions
flee the continent for less-irradiated climes, including two million who land
in Britain. The influx overwhelms the housing and labor markets, creating civil
unrest and eventually all-out civil war. Whitman and his family find themselves
among the displaced, and much of the narrative (told as an achronological clip
show) involves their wanderings in the southern English countryside as they
duck combatants and their allied militias.
takes great pains to avoid demonizing the refugees, stressing that the violence
is between African militants (suggested to be former soldiers supplied arms by
a provocative USSR) and the fascist nativist government. The war is further
complicated by a third interracial faction which seeks to restore peace and the
constitutional monarchy. Throughout it all, Whitman insists on maintaining the absolute
neutrality of his pre-war life, which reduces him and his dependents to the
status of wretched drifters, skulking around deserted villages and scavenging
for tinned food.
point is that nonalignment is an illusion; after all, the simple fact of Whitman’s
white skin means certain groups treat him better than others. Because of this,
some critics accuse Fugue of racism. In his introduction to the 2011
edition — Priest revised the book to make it less detached as well as to clean
up the language — Priest says he modeled the catastrophe on the Troubles of
Northern Island, and speculated what would happen if its sectarian violence
spread to the whole of the UK.
argument isn’t so much about whites versus blacks as it is against neutrality
itself, bringing to mind Sophie Scholl’s quote about the fecklessness of the nonpartisan
in the face of emergency: “But it’s all an illusion, because they die too,
those people who roll up their spirits into tiny little balls so as to be safe.”
Being born white or black or Catholic or Protestant means you’ve already been
assigned to a side, so being uninvolved is out of the question. The real dilemma
is what to do with that fact and whether a man should succumb to blind
tribalism or act upon his principles to fight, and maybe even kill, for
No survey of British post-apoc would be complete without John Wyndham’s The Day of the Triffids (1951), which I regard as among the best of the genre. I’m not alone; the opening in which the protagonist Bill Masen finds himself waking in a hospital after a global catastrophe inspired the film 28 Days Later; and with its scenes of triffids breaking through fences by the sheer weight of numbers or lingering hungrily over corpses, it can be argued that Wyndham single-handedly inspired the zombie apocalypse whole cloth.
a biochemist who works with the mysterious ambulatory plants known as triffids,
is recovering from a triffid sting to his eyes when he wakes up to learn that a
cosmic light show the night before has blinded anyone who saw it. When he
removes his bandages, Masen finds he can see but mostly everyone else cannot.
The adjective “cozy” is sometimes used to describe Wyndham’s book, which is an
odd label considering that many of the victims soon succumb to starvation,
suicide, or disease due to society’s plunge into eternal night.
again, our hero begins an odyssey, first through London and then eventually through
a southern England in which the carnivorous triffids, once a rung below us on
the food chain, have been promoted. Unlike most post-apoc, however, Triffids
culminates in a revelation not often repeated in the almost 70 years since its
publication: the apocalypse was not brought about by a single event — humanity
can weather a lone catastrophe — but rather by a series of them.
is too complex a machine to be disabled by a mere broken cogwheel, Wyndham
reminds us; but should too many parts shatter, then the thing collapses. This
metaphor in mind, one questions whether Brexit, the Good Friday Accord, and mutterings
of a second Scottish referendum are but a single straw or too many for the
burro to bear.
plotting is impeccable, sprinkling scenes of triffid horror between showcases
of the different societies that form after the disaster. A college professor
establishes a kind of benign Handmaid’s Gilead (chalk another tally on
the inspiration wall) in which repopulating the Earth is the primary goal; but
a splinter group soon shears off into matriarchal Christian socialism. Another
character enslaves the sighted for the benefit of the blind, another group
fortifies themselves in a castle, and still another seeks to reestablish
Throughout his adventures, Masen repeatedly encounters people hopeful that Americans will soon arrive to save them — they can’t imagine a world in which the US is just as crippled as they are. This “Micawber fixation on American fairy godmothers” arriving with crates of chlorinated chicken and paprika full of rat hairs is the hope that keeps many of them hanging on. It’s the most utopian of all the groupthinks Masen runs into, a salvation fantasy held by too many in the real world.
Arguments over Brexit have been no exception to a common rhetorical device in which each side accuses the other of being retrograde and reactionary. Who are the more conservative, the Remain voters who wanted to keep things as they are or the Leave voters who wanted a change? Is the desire for sovereignty over the affairs of one’s country forward thinking or a throwback? It’s a question without a clear answer.
For Gen-X readers, Louise Lawrence’s Children
of the Dust (1985) will either summon memories of watching The Day After
on TV or of reading Children in school. Judging by the reviews left on
Goodreads and Amazon, the novel was a popular assignment for Commonwealth kids in
the 80s, and copies are easy to pick up on second-hand sites — mine is an
ex-library edition from an elementary school in Burnaby, British Columbia.
With its young protagonists and grim description of nuclear warfare, it’s easy to see why teachers would assign it to middle-grade readers. Mutually Assured Destruction occurs on page one, and from that dark start we follow several generations of the Harnden family as they deal with the immediate devastation, the rebuilding efforts a few decades later, and a reborn England some fifty years afterward. Lawrence doesn’t spare the gruesome details: after quickly throwing together a makeshift bomb shelter in their house, the initial group of protagonists slowly succumbs to starvation and sickness, all while smelling the stink from their own poop bucket in the corner. The Dion-soundtracked apocalypse of Fallout 4, this isn’t.
Strife eventually develops between
those who endured outdoors and those survivors in government bunkers who seek
to restore Britain as it was — and who see the outsiders as a means to that end.
The perception of the outsiders as deformed bumpkins, even though they’ve persevered
through radiation sickness and nuclear winter, stems from the vault dwellers’
own snobbery, who believe a return to agrarianism is a step backwards.
Meanwhile the pacifist outsiders have no such phobias about the bunker people
and welcome their preserved technology, with the caveat that it be used for
ploughshares instead of swords.
Lawrence makes it clear who she
thinks is the more old-fashioned, but at the end of her no-nukes,
back-to-nature, can’t-we-all-just-get-along sermon is a warning about the
ultimate dangers of conformity, the attachment to old and irrelevant ideas. All
the science in the world isn’t worth much if you’re just going to blow it up.
Richard Jeffries was a British naturalist whose novel After London (1885) likely appealed to Grand Tourists who had to journey to the Mediterranean to see monumental ruins. Jeffries goes into great detail about the reversion of the southern English landscape after an unspecified catastrophe, with the book divided into two sections; the first, “The Relapse Into Barbarism,” reads like a supplement for a roleplaying game, with much verbiage spent on the encroachment of vegetation.
upshot is that the mouths of the Avon and Thames both became silted, with the backed-up
water forming a massive freshwater lake between the Bristol Channel and an
uninhabited London, now a swamp haunted by fatal mists and vapors: as went the pyramids
and the Colosseum, so too went Buckingham and Westminster. Civilization along
the lake has reverted to feudalism, with various noblemen warring with
republican city-states and each other.
second section relates the adventures of Felix Aquilas, eldest son of a mechanically
inclined baron who reintroduced the trebuchet to siege warfare, only to find
himself victim of court jealousies because of his innovation. The result is a
fine levied against him that he cannot hope to pay. Left without an inheritance,
Felix sets off across the inland sea to establish his own barony.
Our hero’s voyage isn’t terribly exciting. Many words are again spent on descriptions of wind, water, flora, and fauna, but Jeffries’s message is 180-degrees to Lawrence’s: screw primitivism — the only way to get ahead in this world is to out-innovate and technologically crush your enemies. Throughout, Felix is stymied by distrust and lack of imagination for his improvements and he suffers the indignities of a Great Man among backwards yokels.
because of its age, the book’s pro-technology, anti-Luddite stance is
refreshing, accompanied by none of the modern hand-wringing over new scientific
developments. Jeffries leaves no doubt who the regressives are. “The richer and
upper classes made use of their money to escape,” Jeffries tells us regarding
the ambiguous cataclysm. “Those left behind were mainly the lower and most
doesn’t matter if you’re the elite or the prole: either way, it’s always the
other one who’s the bitter-ender.
As always, there are probably a hundred other books that could’ve been included here, so feel free to tell me what I missed in the comments. And don’t think I’m picking on the Brits — in 2017, I took a look at what post-apoc fiction says about the USA.
In the meantime, pull on your jumper, lace your trainers, and let’s hope we survive to meet again at the bottom of 2020.
Averoigne and Its Malcontents. Inpatient Press, a small publisher in New York, has produced a trade paperback of Clark Ashton Smith’s stories set in Averoigne, a medieval French province haunted by vampires and sorcerers. Even better, they’ve published it in the style of the Ballantine Adult Fantasy series from the early 1970s, with the line’s distinctive art and minimalist typography. Ballantine editor Lin Carter published four books of Smith’s work in the series and planned a fifth — Averoigne — but the series was canceled before the book could appear anywhere except the Sandman’s library shelf.
For years I’ve chronicled various attempts to produce the missing fifth volume. In 1995, publisher Donald M. Grant began advertising a hardback edition edited by Ron Hilger, but for decades that book remained vaporware. It finally appeared 21 years later, published by Centipede Press as an expensive collector’s edition that ran only 200 copies. Hilger says a paperback version is forthcoming from Hippocampus Press, release date TBD. Meanwhile in June, Pickman’s Press published their own e-book collection of the stories.
Hilger is none too happy about the Inpatient Press paperback, labeling it a “pirate edition,” an “illegal publication,” and a “fraud” because it wasn’t authorized by Smith’s estate, which is operated by Smith’s stepson. Inpatient informed me, however, that the book is perfectly legal — they used the Weird Tales versions of the stories, which are in the public domain.
Place Settings. I like to listen to podcasts about pirates, vintage RPGs, and 19th-century history, but for awhile I’d been searching without satisfaction for a podcast about utopian intentional settlements. Then, lo and behold, along came Curbed with their series Nice Try! An early episode discussed the Oneida community in upstate New York, which is one of my favorite examples of the utopian arc: what began as voluntary social experiment eventually devolved into a dysfunctional, if not horrific, cult. Not to mention an internationally known tableware company.
Coincidentally over at LitHub, author Caite Dolan-Leach discusses how she used Oneida as a template for the modern-day utopian commune in her new novel. Likewise I used Brook Farm and Fruitlands as models for Bonaventure, the setting for A Season of Whispers — although as far as I know, Dolan-Leach’s book doesn’t involve whispering walls and mysterious disappearances.
Here we are again as the conclusion of another season of True Detective looms nigh.
Judging from conversations and the scores registered at Rotten Tomatoes, my sentiments for this season dovetail with those of other viewers. It is neither as rich and compelling as season one nor as Byzantine as season two (and I say that as someone who liked season two). The sense of setting, so pervasive before, feels more any-town here, and the lyrical dialogue of the characters has been toned down. For me the biggest disappointment has been the drastically curtailed soundtrack, with the deep cuts of the last half century replaced by instrumental scores and Moog bass so low it shakes our television. Seriously — the site I check after every episode for the track list is crickets and tumbleweeds.
And yet the central mystery of this season is probably the strongest of the three. When you smooth out the flashbacks and flashforwards of the original McConaughey and Harrelson adventure and lay it linearly, the story is fairly straightforward. The plot of season two was completely lost among the sprawling cast of characters, which is OK because I understood writer Nic Pizzolatto was going for a Raymond Chandler type of noir and Chandler emphasized characters and language over plot. This season, with its return to S1’s rural roads and tripartite time frames, seems to be playing with our expectations of similarity, and yet after seven episodes we still don’t know the motives for the crimes committed. The trailers and opening credits inspired us to anticipate things that have yet to materialize; we thought we were buying another backwoods conspiracy involving child predators, when instead what we may be watching is a clandestine custody battle complicated by an accidental murder.
Mahershala Ali and Stephen Dorff are nothing short of mesmerizing but for me S3’s real standout has been Carmen Ejogo’s character Amelia. The unsure wannabe writer of the earliest frame, scribbling notes with some vague notion of collating them into a book, is replaced in the 1990s frame by a confident author receiving galleys and doing bookstore readings, inversely mirroring the decline of Ali’s character Wayne Hays as she matures and ascends to the role of superior detective.
A complaint about journalism in general and true-crime specifically is that it preys upon the misfortunes of others, and it’s particularly galling for Amelia to be a target of that spite from her own jealous husband. No one questions the police officer’s inquisitiveness, but writers and reporters, for all the vitriol aimed at them — especially these days — are just another kind of investigator, complete with flaws, mistakes, and fuck-ups. True-crime writers are especially relentless detectives; just ask Michelle McNamara’s widower husband. If the officer isn’t begrudged a promotion at the close of a successful case, why do we begrudge the writer her book or the reporter his news story? The answer, to paraphrase Vince Vaughn’s character from S2, is because writers often refuse to parrot back the lies we tell ourselves. When somebody else tells a narrative of events that differs from our own, it angers us.
The joy of watching True Detective is constantly readjusting, episode after episode, my ever-unfolding theories about the mystery. Sunday night I’ll probably be right about some stuff and wrong about other stuff, and because I can’t tell which will be which, I’ll also be surprised.